Hope Animation Assignment – Development and Evaluation

Initially, when I started this assignment, I created a series of goals in Asana. I organised these by task and date, assigning them certain days and general time-frames to achieve in order to accomplish the assignment in an efficient and timely manner. Once this was in place, I began researching and ideating.

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 When it came to research, I investigated several topics;Hope (meaning, in historical and philosophical context, references that are both visual and non-visual, and how hope is used in an example of art, design,literature and or film), 2D animation (methods, techniques, story and content etc.),storyboards, animatics and software.
Once all that research had been compiled and written about,with references and images gathered, I moved onto ideation and sketchbook work.I started with an idea of a triangle, rising and projecting light in a dark world. This light would fall upon a figure, whom is in despair upon the ground,while several more triangles appear in the distance as the sky lightens. A series of notes regarding the storyline, key points and visual elements were created,supplemented with several sketches and thumbnails. My sketchbook, as it progresses, includes more notes and drawings, as well as storyboards and character exploration.

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The direction I took, stylised and semi-abstract, was heavily influenced by research into colour and shape language, especially in relation to the concept of hope and the emotional connotations of those elements. This is evident in the shapes I chose, with an upside-down triangle for the representation of future hope and a better future, flipping the usual connotation of the violent and aggressive shape language that is normally interpreted through triangles. For hope, I used a circle as a representational tool; combined with white and its fleeting appearances in the story, it puts forth a narrative on the elusive nature of the concept.
With several different shapes and value combination present,I needed to find a way to separate them, as well as introduce texture. To do so, I created several sketches, assigning value groups to certain shapes and foreground, middle ground and background sections. To add further character to the story, the character was developed further, seeking out a consistent style to use in the animation. After much exploration, both into simplified/stylised,realistic/semi-realistic, angular and soft, line and broad/charcoal strokes, I settled on a combination of line and charcoal strokes, with the character moving between both the ‘medium’ and visual style as well. Fluctuations between construction-esque manikins, simplified skeletons, fleshed-out bodies and charcoal strokes were made, each representing a certain emotional state, as well as the position of the character in the story.
The bare, simplified and skeletal styles, as well as the constructionist ones, symbolise the emptiness of the character, with some order being restored to their being when the orb/sphere appears and returns throughout the animation. The charcoal strokes, with the character being ‘filled in’, represents the character before the turmoil and distress, as well as afterwards. This shows the character as ‘whole’, his being undisturbed by chaos and discord. Colour experimentation, as well as storyboard development,was explored as well. The colour-work in my sketchbook was done using colour pencils, with a fine-liner being another medium/tool that I used.
The final storyboard, of which I created digitally in Photoshop, does not deviate too heavily from the one in my sketchbook. It was also used to construct my animatic, making the process much more efficient.
For the storyboard, made in Photoshop, I attempted to create a good indication of the story, visuals, content and camera  angles/shots/movements. I used a template found online, creating groups for each storyboard and its respective panels to ensure better structuring and layering. The first panel, depicting the character while still in a happy state, has bright blue and cyan colours in evidence. The character stands tall and proud, confident and happy. This panel makes use of arrows and a rectangular inner frame to illustrate zooming in, where a transition occurs towards panel two. There, a vignette effect is displayed, showing chaos or struggle that is occurring in the character’s life. The third panel shows the character in a dark, textural void with tendrils of black and red swirling towards him, contrasting the ones found in panel 1. This reflection and juxtaposition of the first panel reinforces the idea that the character is going through a difficult time, with elements of his life that were previously positive now affecting him negatively. Afterwards, a transitional sequence is depicted through several panels, with textural effects, custom brushes,masking, layering and grouping being used to create these visuals. Those abstract and textural images, which will flash upon the screen briefly, are representations of the inner turmoil faced by the character. After a series of those images, a panel depicting the character falling is shown. Here, a dark background with a static texture is evident, showing the confusion and negativity imbued in the perceived chaotic void of life.
However, in the panel after this, a white sphere appears before the character, whom raises their head to view it. The camera angle here is slightly above over-the-shoulder, showing the top of the back of the character’s head with the sphere above and before him. The camera will then cut to a view of the character’s face from the front, lifting his head up to face the orb/sphere in the foreground. The camera, in the next panel, is then further back. Here, the character turns to track the sphere as it moves across the screen. It will then fly up and away from the character as he stretches out towards it. Clearly distraught in the next panel, as he has effectively lost his fleeting glance at hope, he walks in a slumped manner before lifting his head once again to view the orb return. In this next panel, the sphere/orb travels towards and around him as he tracks it, turning side to side as it orbits him before flying off into the distance.
Once again, the character has ‘lost hope’ and struggles togo on, stumbling in the dark void he inhabits. Shortly after stumbling to the ground, another transitional sequence of abstract shapes and textures appears.Following that, a scene where an abstract representation of the character’s ‘soul’ is depicted, showing how he experiences great emotional and spiritual pain from the complete absence of hope. He falls into despair, as shown in the next few panels. Here, several camera angles show him on all-fours, within the dark void he still inhabits. After a while, a light begins to shine upon him.This heralds the return of the orb, of which orbits him once again. He then lifts his head, the next panel showing a much more colourful scene; the sun is rising, with both warm and cool colours bleeding into/washing over the background. Here, the character is still on all-fours, however, strong directional light begins to wash over him. The next panel displays the presence of a large upside-down triangle, the sphere residing next to it as it casts its light upon the now kneeling character. The next panel depicts the character standing up, with the camera showing only his shoulders and up as he stands up.Afterwards, a scene with the character standing is shown, several more characters appearing in the background as the light from the main one is cast onto the character.
During the development of this storyboard, I had to ensure a coherent story that related to the concept of hope, making sure that the theme was communicated not only through shape language and story, but also colour and posing.

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Moving forwards, I started to work on my animatic. To do this, I used Photoshop’s Timeline with the workspace set to Motion. I then created several groups, referencing the ones created for the storyboard, as well as copying over the folder structures from the document for the storyboard. Having the storyboard done beforehand made the process of creating the animatic much more efficient, cutting down on the time required to make it.In this phase of the assignment, I worked mainly upon getting the timing of the scenes right, acting out several actions and timing them to ensure accuracy.Some changes were made during the animatic phase, however the visuals remained mostly the same to the ones for the storyboards.

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Once I had created the animatic, we went into a feedback phase. Here, we created Google Forms where we created a series of questions that we then had out peers respond to, essentially gathering feedback and critique.

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The feedback was rather helpful, highlighting the areas thatI needed to work on and re-visit. Afterwards, I moved onto the actual animation for the assignment. Before I begun animating, I took reference videos me performing certain actions. This is to ensure accuracy regarding the motion and timing, creating believability. Not only did I take videos, but pictures as well. Those images helped with specific poses, added to the ability to useAdobe Premiere to dissect the video reference, I had a decent amount of reference to use when animating.
Animation Tests and In-Class Exercises/Tutorials:

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When it came to animating in Photoshop, I had to do quite a bit of research, as well as trial and error. To help with organisation, I organised the animation into several scenes, each with their own folder structures inside. To animate, I had to create video layers using Layer ->Video Layers -> New Blank Video Layer. Within this, I could animate frame by frame, navigating with the arrow keys and seeing the next and/or previous frames using Onion Skinning, of which is accompanied by several options in an expandable menu/drop down menu attached to the animation panel/timeline.
When I needed still images that were to persist over certain periods of time, as well as have certain transformations applied to them, I created a normal layer and converted the contents within to smart objects,allowing me to manipulate, edit and transform them more freely when it came to the Timeline Panel.  Some of the scenes required careful planning and layer structuring due to the overlapping nature of some elements, this was aided by the ability to group layers, as well as structure them in the Timeline Panel, moving them around, layering and lining them up with each other.

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When it comes to animating, I am still quite inexperienced.I faced many challenges, of which having reference helped solve. I used AdobePremiere to navigate my reference videos, pausing it at strategic points to view the ‘key frames’. One area of particular difficulty was the scene where the character is seen from the side view and moves from left to right, stopping and then breathing rapidly. While I was animating, the depiction of breath was initially quite unrealistic, however, as I was drawing I got into a rhythm,realising how to animate the movement better by acting it out myself,exaggerating the movements. In order to depict rapid breathing through the chest, I raised the rib cage and flattened the stomach for the inhalation, and vice versa for when the character exhaled.
To animate the ‘growth’ of the triangles, I created them as smart objects, used the transform option and created keyframes, starting them out small and ending them at a larger size a short period of time. To ensure accuracy, I created a separate layer for guides, placing dots at the original points of the ‘original’ triangles before transformations. To show a gentler fade, I used the gradient tool to fill in a selection when creating the triangles, of which was enhanced by the use of a soft eraser.
In comparison, animating with lines was faster than using the broad charcoal strokes. When using the broad strokes, achieving proper proportions and body shape was difficult, especially when using only a few limited values. The lines allowed me to create more gestural shapes and forms,allowing me to create flowing frame by frame animation. The broader strokes were more suited to the still images and shorter scenes, especially ones affected by lighting and the heavy use of colour.
The use of lines also helped with accuracy, allowing me to break down the movement and scenes more-so than if I had predominately used the charcoal strokes. Ease-in and out, as well as timing and the position of the body and its individual parts during movement are important factors to pay attention to, as these help add realism and appeal to the animation.

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The audio, created by my friend Tristan, is used to emphasise the chaotic and discordant nature of the character’s journey, as well as the fickle nature of hope. The electronic and unsettling notes sound out during key moments, signalling shifts in tone and visuals, persisting even through the times of supposed hope and happiness. The gong that sounds out during the transitions of despair hints at the finality of death, something linked to the feelings of hope and despair, a driving factor for humanity.
Compared to most professionally produced animations, mine appears un-finished, with line work and animation errors throughout. Colour-wise, the use of flats combined with clean line-work would of been beneficial, providing a cleaner look to the overall animation. An example of this would be Snow White, where the use of clean lines, flats and painted backgrounds create visually interesting scenes, as well as fluid animation. Instead of using charcoal strokes, I could of filled in the lines of the characters, applying lighting using the lasso selection and gradient tools. The  backgrounds in my animation are rather simple and abstract, with only a few values used to separate the ground from the sky, and in some scenes only two values are used to divide the ground and the sky, with textures applied to add visual interest. Further along, the background become slightly more complex, with coloured gradients, a sun and several triangles being introduced. However, compared the Snow White, these backgrounds are simple and abstract, lacking the traditional painterly quality evident in the animations of old.

Stop Motion Animation Assignment – Development and Evaluation

For the Letter/Alphabet Stop Motion part of the AnimationAssignment, I started in my sketchbook with the ideation of stop motion avenues and possibilities. I wrote down, supplemented by previous and current research,several types of stop motion techniques, processes and mediums. My initial direction was related to the use of a chalkboard/blackboard and some chalk,leaning it against a surface such as a chair or wall, using chalk to create the required letter.
The way I was going to achieve the stop motion effect with the letter and chalkboard combo was thus; I would measure out segments, each insets of 12 ‘frames’. I would then advance the lines to another segment, talking a picture, and then progressing on. Once I had advanced the lines a decent amount, I would erase by rubbing and/or using a wet cloth to wipe off the undesired marks/chalk.
The letter I was given, ‘Z’, was created using this method.I measured out several sections, broke them up into segments and then advanced the lines across the board, erasing and taking pictures as needed. To ensure stability, I mounted the camera on a tripod and placed the chalkboard on an easel/drawing board. I used some paper and a pencil to record the frame rate and images taken, using tallies and totals to ensure consistency.
After review from teachers, I gathered information on how to improve my stop motion animation. Several of the suggestions were related to font, character/s, lighting, colour and sound, as well as frame rate. Regarding lighting, the images were taken in daylight, light fluctuating through blinds.This created visual disturbances and stuttering, lowering the quality of the animation.
I then went back to ideation, informed by these suggestions and various new directions. The inclusion of a character, such as a zebra,and/or other elements relating to the letter ‘Z’ were suggested. In order to include elements that related more to the letter in question, I created several sketches and did some exploration in terms of font and shapes. I came up with amore organic font, more efficient when it comes to managing the frame rate/number of pictures required in relation to the timing. To relate the letter to an example of a word starting with Z, such as zebra, I included sketches of black and white stripes. I experimented with this in several ways,of which can be seen in the images below.
After creating more sketches in my sketchbook, I went back to taking images to create the stop motion animation. Feedback also included the mentioning of the background in the images I had taken, and that it was too distracting; the suggestion, therefore, was to zoom in on the chalkboard. Due to the orientation of the chalkboard and distances between the table it was on,and the counter the camera was on, required me to pursue other options. I tried out using a sketchbook, however the bright paper made it difficult for the camera to adjust and focus.
To solve these problems, I pursued another medium. I extracted zig-zags from the letter Z, relating to that were twisting pieces of pasta. To make this new medium work, I used a cutting board placed upon a counter. Atop that board, I placed pieces of pasta, arranging them into a Z with extra lines coming off it to form a zig-zag. To add visual interest and some more motion, I created a zig-zag, on the left hand-side of the shot, that would move from top to bottom and vice versa. To boost the frame rate and smoothness of those frames, double pictures for each ‘frame was taken’, thus doubling the frame rate.

Stop Motion Animation:

Hope and Stop Motion Animation Treatments

Hope Animation Treatment:

Working Title: Hope Animation – Ryan N
Genre: 2D Digital Animation (using Photoshop)
Duration: 90 seconds or less.
TargetAudience: 16-25 year olds (male and female)
Outline – This animation features a nameless main character, a blank template that anyone can project themselves onto. Initially, this character is in a state of peace, represented by the saturated blues surrounding him.However, a vignette effect rushes towards the character, aided by zooming, to transition into the next scene. Here, the character is ‘attacked’ by tendrils of ‘negative energy’, abstractly represented by black and red brush strokes.Afterwards, a series of images flash across the screen, of which represent the struggles and negative emotions experienced by the character after this time of pain. Once that sequence is complete, the character will sit up from an all-fours position, surrounded by static as the camera zooms out.
The next scene will introduce the sphere,an orb of white that flies towards the character, whom raises their head to observe its appearance. It will then zoom past the character, with a scene showing him turning to watch it fly past. Disappointed by this fleeting moment of light, he becomes clearly upset by dropping his shoulders and head in exasperation. Moving forwards, the character finds the sphere again, causing his breathing to quicken in anticipation. From another camera angle, in front of the character, the orb travels towards and around the character before speeding off into the distance. The character turns, tracking and reaching out to the sphere before it leaves.
Another sequence, representing the negative emotions of the character, occurs. This transitions to a scene of the character’s ‘soul’ falling and fading, representing the last bit of hope left disappearing from his life. The next two shots display the character on all-fours once again, in despair while surrounded by darkness, the sky textured with static. A close-up shot of the character is then shown before pulling out,displaying the sphere/orb flying around the character once again before leaving.
The next scene displays a sun rise, the character raising his head while on all-fours as light reaches towards him. The orb flies off the side of the screen, in the direction of the light stretching across the ground. The camera cuts to a long-shot, displaying the character,still on all-fours, as a triangle of light rises up before him with its light stretching towards him. A close-up shot then occurs, with the character’s head and shoulders shown rising up, a background depicting the sun’s light spilling across the sky, changing the colours in a gradient. A long-shot, similar to the one previously, is then shown. Here, the character stands as several more triangles rise in the distance. The screen then fades to white, displaying the credits and end plate.
CharacterBreakdown: The two characters will be a male figure and a bright sphere. The figure is the human in turmoil, while the sphere is an abstract concept or being that provides hope for this person, guiding them along the way to recovery.
VisualElements / Mise en Scene: The visual elements were drawn and ideated within a sketchbook,then re-created in Photoshop. Storyboards were created first, then an animatic(embellish upon?). The lighting, characters and settings within the storyboards and the animatic were created using Photoshop, a Wacom tablet, and a series of tools and custom brushes.
Audio– The audio will be discordant, eerier and unsettling. There will be electronic and nearly sci-fi elements, hinting at the uncertainty and strange, unsettling nature of the subject matter and the journey that the character goes through. Certain sound effects will play to announce the beginning, ends and transitions of certain scenes, with the mood of the audio continuing even into the scenes of positivity; thus showing that even though you believe hope has returned, danger and despair may loom just around the corner, ready to hold you in its clutches once again, highlighting the fickle nature of life and the concept of hope.
Rationale: I have chosen this idea due to the sensitive, yet abstract,subject matter that is prevalent in today’s society. Not only is self-harm on the ever-increasing rise, but hope seems like a foreign concept due to the nature of news journalism and social media. The sensitive aspect of the subject matter, portrayed in an abstracted manner, combined with a message of hope may elicit emotional responses from many. Therefore, it will grab the attention of the viewers, the cause for that may be for good or bad reasons, however that is up to personal interpretation of the subject matter presented.
I have skill and experience in both traditional and digital art (Photoshop and Graphics Tablets), of which will help when storyboarding, conceptualising and creating assets for the animation.However, the actual skill of animation is rather new to me, therefore I will need to learn how to not only use Photoshop as an animation tool, but also the principle and foundations of animation.
Primary and Secondary Research: I have done extensive research into the concept of hope, looking at multiple sources online. Using those sources, I have created notes with references, as well as mood boards, to help aid me when ideating the story for the animation. I have also done research into both storyboarding and animation/film-making, as well as how they relate to one another. Similarly, notes and mood boards were created help with the ideation and development of the animation.
Requirements and resources: The equipment required for this animation would sketchbooks, pencils, colour pencils, computer and peripherals,a graphics tablet and Photoshop. I have access to these and do no require outsourcing for them.
Constraints and Contingency: Problems will most likely been countered regarding the transfer between storyboard, animatic and animation.Not only that, but the actual animating itself. To overcome these challenges,research and experimentation is required, with each situation requiring its own specific approach.
Legal and ethical considerations – I need to ensure that my work is entirely my own, with the audio being either my own or open-source/public domain.
Budget – Potential costs would involve that of a sketchbook, stationary,computer, graphics tablet and a copy of Photoshop, as well as audio software capable of creating music.
Schedule – It will most likely take one to two months to complete the assignment, from research to final animation.


Stop Motion Animation Treatment:

Working Title: Alphabet (Letter Z) Stop Motion Animation –Ryan N
Genre: Stop Motion Animation – Pixilation/Object/Pasta
Duration: 5 seconds
Target Audience: Young teenagers.
Outline – Pasta creates the shape of a Z, with a zig-zag of pasta moving along the left-hand side of the screen.
Character Breakdown – Your main characters: Names, age race gender etc. Include any necessary back-story.
Visual Elements / Mise en Scene: The stop motion animation will be done using pasta lain and manipulated upon a cutting board.
Audio– The sound of pasta being shaken is present,relating to the subject matter.
Rationale – The twisted forms of the pasta relate to zig-zags, of which relates to the letter Z.
Primary and Secondary Research – I have conducted research into Stop Motion and the various forms it takes, as well as the techniques and processes pertaining to those forms and mediums.
Requirements and resources – Pasta, camera, tripod, cutting board, object use to elevate camera, Adobe Premiere, PC, phone to record audio with.
Constraints and Contingency – The lighting will be controlled by taking the images in the evening, with the blinds closed and lights on. The orientation of the camera to the cutting board and pasta will be achieved through the use of an object to elevate the camera. To aid this, a tripod will be used to angle the camera towards the board.
Legal and ethical considerations – N/A
Budget – The costs would include that of the camera, tripod, cutting board,pasta, editing software, PC and peripherals, phone to record audio with.
Schedule – Organising, story boarding, taking the pictures, recording the audio and compiling them in Adobe Premiere will take several hours.

Storyboard and Animatic Research

Storyboard Research:

Storyboards are used to illustrate the shots and scenes that make up the final animation and/or film, allowing you to plan out what it will look like and how to create it. A storyboard is usually comprised of a rectangular frame called a panel, this shows the content of what the camera sees. Using storyboards, you can establish the camera angles and perspectives you will use early on, as well as the locations, props and effects needed for the different parts of the animation and/or film.
To show movement, the use of arrows is generally employed. These show the direction something is moving in, be it a character, door or camera. Arrows within the panel indicate movement within a scene, arrows outside of the panel are used to show camera movement.
It is better to over explain than to leave information in ambiguity. Notes are extremely useful, helping to create clarity and communicate the information more effectively. These notes can be outside the panel, usually below, or inside arrows.

Types of Shots:

Camera Angles:
Extreme Long Shot:
-Camera is positioned far away from the subject, good for establishing the environment and the character’s position within it, especially useful for new environments, areas and locations.
Long/Full Body Shot:
-Closer than the Extreme Long Shot, showing the entire character.
Medium Shot:
-Closer than the Long Shot, usually showing a character from the waist up or down. Medium Long Shots can be used to show the character from the knees up.
Close Up:
-Close-up shot of the subject that usually shows, although it is not limited to, the character’s head.
Extreme Close Up:
-An ever closer viewpoint, usually used to highlight a specific element. Often used to show the eye’s of a character.
Up Shot:
-Camera is tilted up, viewing the subject matter from below. (Can be combined with the previous shots)
Down Shot:
-Camera is tilted down, viewing the subject matter from above. (Can be combined with the previous shots)
Low Angle:
-Camera is positioned lower in relation to the subject, however it is still pointed towards the horizon line. (Can be combined with the previous shots)
Tilt (Dutch):
-The camera is tiled and held in an angle, usually used to create an unsettling and unstable feeling.
Pan Shots:
-Pans are when the camera moves within an environment, physically changing position. Usually used to show the movement of the subject matter or the changing of the audience’s point of view.
Horizontal Pan:
-Camera moves in a horizontal direction, parallel to the horizon line.
Vertical Pan:
-Camera moves vertically, usually tracking a character’s movements and adjusting accordingly.
Diagonal Pan:
-Camera moves diagonally, using both horizontal and vertical movement.
Non-Linear Pan:
-Camera follows the subject.
Camera Angles, Movements and Arrows:
-The manipulation of the camera, its viewpoint, and its direction.
Track/Dolly Shot:
-One arrow that narrows to suggest movement in or out of 3D space.
-Arrows in all four corners of the panel, going in or out, showing narrowing or widening of perspective. Drawing a panel within the panel shows how far the dolly goes.
-Often used to track/follow a character through a scene, usually keeping pace and creating a background that ‘pans’ behind them.
Zoom In/Out:
-Arrows in all four corners of the panel, going in or out, showing narrowing or widening of perspective. Drawing a panel within the panel shows how far the zoom goes.
-Similar to a tilt, the camera moves from one angle to another in a rocking or spinning movement. The angle could range from several degrees to a complete 360 degrees rotation.
Rack Focus:
-This is where one element is in focus with everything else being out of focus, then the focus changes to a different subject within the scene. Usually this in-camera movement is paired with others, such as a zoom.
Pan Right/Left:
-Pans to either the left or right are shown with arrows on the sides of the panel.
Tilt Up/Down:
-Tilts have arrows on the top or bottom of the panel.


 Character Shots:
One Shot:
-One character
Two Shot:
-Two characters
Three Shot:
-Three characters
Crowd Shot:
-More than three characters
-Foreground character and background character. Camera looks over/past shoulder of foreground character. Foreground character = framing element.
Establishing Shot:
-Establishes scene and location.
Point of View (Subjective):
-Camera = character’s eyes
-Characters are seemingly unaware of the camera, as though it is hidden in the environment. Most movies are filmed this way.
-Similar to the Object Shot, however it usually involves a more ‘hidden camera’ kind of feeling, with the content being something you normally would not be able to see.
Split Screen:
-Screen is divided into segments, showing the audience multiple scenes at once.

Types of Scenes:

-Physical movement is occurring.
-No intense physical movement.
-Character/s are talking.
-A series/sequence of events/scenes that are related, highlighting important shots.
-Silhouetted scenes, usually used to invoke a creepy and/or unsettling mood/atmosphere.

Cuts and Transitions:

-Changing from one scene to another in order to advance the story and establish a different perspective.
Cutting in Action:
-Moving from shot to shot as the subject is in motion.
Cut Away:
-Cut to an insert shot of something, and then back again.
Cross Cut:
-Cutting back and forth between locations and scenes.
Jump Cut:
-Cuts between and inside the same shot, used to show the passing of time, especially in montages. They can be used to add urgency to a scene, adding a frantic nature and/or…
-Cuts from one shot, to a similar shot, by either matching the action and/or composition. These are usually used as scene transition, as they are often ‘jumpy’. They can also be verbal/auditory, with the continuation of sentences/music/sounds being part of the transition.
Fade In/Fade Out:
-Dissolving to or from black.
-Blending one shot into another, usually used in montages and the communication of the passage of time.
Smash Cut:
-Abrupt transitions, making use of contrast in mood, tone and visuals etc.
-Dark circle closing in or expanding from an area in a shot/scene.
-One scene ‘wipes’ off across the scene, revealing another one ‘below’ it. This can also happen with the second screen going over the first, ‘wiping’ across it and ‘hiding’ the previous scene.
Invisible Cut:
-Cuts that are hidden in blackness/darkness, the movement of an object within/crossing/leaving the scene/frame or camera motion/movement (whitpans).
-Audio based transition, with the audio from the current shot carrying over to the next shot.
-This is when the audio from the next scene starts before it visually appears, this technique is good for revealing a new element within the scene.
Cross Dissolve:
-One image/scene is gradually replaced by another, with the fading taking place over a number of frames with a percentage tied to each increment/frame.
Ripple Dissolve:
-Same as Cross Dissolve, however there is an effect/filter applied to make the image look distorted.
-Screen fades to or from black.

Animatic Research:

Animatics are essentially animated storyboards, matching your storyboard with the timing, basic audio and pacing of the animation. Animatics are effective for pre-visualisation, taking storyboards a step further. They allow you to bridge the gap between storyboards and the final animation, letting you plan out the final animation more effectively.


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Lemay, B. (2017). Suggested Animation Type Books. [online] Brianlemay.com. Available at: http://www.brianlemay.com/Pages/animationschool/storyboarding/Shotselection.html [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
RocketJump Film School (2016). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQsvhq28sOI [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Schaaik, E. (2015). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5FqyhLGTH4 [Accessed 2 Apr. 2017].
Storyboard That. (2017). Camera Shots | Action Cues | Establishing Shot Storyboards. [online] Available at: http://www.storyboardthat.com/articles/f/camera-shots [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Toon Boom Animation. (2017). Animatic. [online] Available at: https://www.toonboom.com/resources/video-tutorials/chapter/animatic [Accessed 2 Apr. 2017].
Zamora, M. (2012). Types of Shots and Storyboard. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/ManuelMorales17/types-of-shorts-and-storyboard [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].

2D Animation, Snow White and Techniques Research

The animation process used in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is the use of cel animation. This form of animation makes use of sequential hand drawn frames, usually done on a stack of paper. This allows the animator to flip the pages back and forth, checking the sequence of movements in a way similar to that of a flip book. To aid with this process, of which is time consuming, key frames, storyboards, and final designs are usually established before the main body of animating work is commenced. Once the animation is mostly complete, the drawings will be traced, with ink, onto plastic cells (transparent sheets), painted and then compiled together over the background art to create the final animation.
In regards to the animation techniques used in the creation of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, traditional cel animation was employed. Seeing as this film was the pioneer for this technique and process when it came to feature films, the large scale production was pioneering in the field. Once the story, storyboards and conceptual art had been completed, dialogue is recorded and then the animators set to work creating thousands of drawings, using pencils and traditional flip-book techniques for the sequential nature of the animation. Usually, the more experienced animators will create the main ‘key-frames’, while others will draw the in-between frames to complete the scenes and movements. After the bulk of the animating work was completed, the drawings were handed off to other employees to trace, using ink and transparent sheets of plastic to recreate the drawings. Painting came next, with every single frame (cel sheet) being painted and coloured, with the paint being applied to the back of the sheets to preserve the inked line quality. Once this has been completed, the sheets were compiled over the backgrounds, painted using Tempera or Water Colour onto panels of glass, and photographed in sequence, effectively creating the animation.
During this entire process, the animators and various other members of the studio would test their animations and seek feedback, personally viewing as well as presenting rough animations and sequences to their peers. To accompany the animation, sound effects and musical scores were creating. As they did not have sophisticated music production software back in those days, all of the sounds and music had to be manually created and recorded, allowing them to have a more authentic and real sound quality to them.
Not only did Disney Studios create the first full-length animated feature film, but it was a pioneer in large-scale cel animation, the use of Technicolour and multi-plane camera use.


Backlots. (2012). Disney Production Process and Innovations in Animation Technique in “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (1937). [online] Available at: https://backlots.net/2012/11/28/disney-production-process-and-innovations-in-animation-technique-in-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs-1937/ [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Boone, A. (1938). The Making of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs – Popular Science (Jan, 1938). [online] Modern Mechanix. Available at: http://blog.modernmechanix.com/the-making-of-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs/ [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Colman, D. (2011). How Walt Disney Cartoons Are Made: 1939 Documentary Gives an Inside Look. [online] Open Culture. Available at: http://www.openculture.com/2011/04/how_walt_disney_cartoons_are_made_.html [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Walt Disney Animation Studios. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walt_Disney_Animation_Studios [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Just Disney. (2017). Walt Disney Studios Animation – Just Disney. [online] Available at: http://www.justdisney.com/animation/animation.html [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
McQuade, K. (2013). The Many Stages Of Pixar Development As Told By Reddit. [online] The Huffington Post. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/07/disney-pixar_n_4056840.html [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Simon, B. (2002). The One That Started It All… The Making Of Snow White – Animated Views. [online] Animatedviews.com. Available at: http://animatedviews.com/2002/the-one-that-started-it-all-the-making-of-snow-white/ [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].

Animation Timeline and History Research

-Thaumatrope (1824)
-Phenakistoscope (1831)
-Zoetrope (1834)
-Flip Book (1868)
-Theatre Optique by Charles-Emile Reynaud (1892)
-The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1897)
-Humorous Phases of Funny Faces by J. Stuart Blackton (1906)
-Katsudo Shashin (1907)
-Fantasmagori (1908)
-The Cameraman’s Revenge (1911)
-Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)
-Cel Animation (1914)
-Rotoscoping (1915)
-El Apostle (1917)
-Felix the Cat (1920)
-Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926)
-Steamboat Willie by Disney Studios (1928)
-Flower and Trees [Technicolour] by Disney Studios (1932)
-Three Little Pigs by Disney Studios (1933)
-Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Disney Studios (1937)
-The Huckleberry Hound Show by Hanna-Barbera (1958) on Colour Television [Introduced in 1951]
-The Flintstones by Hanna-Barbera and Zerography Technique (1960)
-Watership Down using Dolby sound (1978)
-3D animated feature films using CGI [Rock and Rule] and Stereoscopic techniques [Abra Cadabra], Animated TV Series using Stereo Sound (1983)
-The Simpsons [Longest running American animated program] (1987)
-Who Framed Roger Rabbit, first feature film where live-action and cartoon animation, for the entire film, shared screen space (1988)
-Beauty and the Beast is the first animated film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture (1991)
-Toy Story [First entirely CGI animated feature film] (1995)
-Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within [Motion-capture animation] (2001)
-Wizards and Giants [First flash animated film] (2003)
-Cel-shaded animation Appleseed Steamboy (2004)
-Coraline [Stop motion character using rapid prototyping to aid animation] (2009)
-Big Hero 6 (2014)
-Moana (2016)


Anon, (2015). [online] Available at: https://www.nyfa.edu/student-resources/quick-history-animation/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Animation. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

En.wikipedia.org. (2017). History of animation. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_animation [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

History-of-animation.webflow.io. (2017). history of animation. [online] Available at: http://history-of-animation.webflow.io/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Jednet.co.uk. (2017). Kingston College School of Art & Design. [online] Available at: http://jednet.co.uk/k/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Softschools.com. (2017). History of Animation Timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.softschools.com/timelines/history_of_animation_timeline/251/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Animation Techniques Research

Traditional/Classical/Cel/Hand-Drawn Animation:

Cel Animation Reference
This form of animation makes use of sequential hand drawn frames, usually done on a stack of paper. This allows the animator to flip the pages back and forth, checking the sequence of movements in a way similar to that of a flip book. To aid with this process, of which is time consuming, key frames, storyboards, and final designs are usually established before the main body of animating work is commenced. Once the animation is mostly complete, the drawings will be traced onto plastic cells (transparent sheets), painted and then compiled together over the background to create the final animation.
Adobe Photoshop
Toon Boom
Anime Studio

Vector Animation:

Vector animation entails shapes, created using digital software, being manipulated, rigged and moved. Usually, one would create several ‘assets’ that are interchangeable, layered and with several variations. This allows the animator to move the elements ‘through’ 3D space while using 2D vectors. Commonly, plugins, scripts and rigs are used for for efficiency, allowing the animator to rig a character with bone and join structures, allowing him/her to manipulate the nodes, of which then influence the parent-child relationship of the other, attached, nodes.
Adobe Flash
Adobe After Effects
Anime Studio

Stop Motion:

Usually, stop motion is created through the taking of a series of photographs. Clay, plasticine and wire are common materials for models that are used in stop motion animation, manipulated and moved each time before taking another image. The amount of photos you have per movement influences your frame rate. The sequence of photographs, when played as though they are a slideshow, give the impression of video, motion and animation. Stop motion allows the animator to experience a more tactile and physical form of animation, manually manipulating the clay and creating armatures by packing that clay over wire frames.

CGI/Computer/3D Animation:

3D animation makes use of a series of software packages, allowing users to model, rig and then animate their creations. Once a 3D model has been created, a rig (similar to an armature) can be created and then manipulated. The motions, since you are working inside 3D software, can be manipulated using X,Y and Z axis, allowing you to move the model through space. Once the animation is complete, the models textured, the lighting and physics established, the overall animation is rendered and has post-production effects and edits applied to it.
Autodesk Maya
Autodesk Softimage
Autodesk 3DS Max
Cinema 4D

Abstract Animation:

The main goal of abstract animation is to communicate emotion through the use of motion, colour, light, music, rhythm and composition. Usually, these types of animations lack story, but are instead visual and sound experiences intended for the interpretation of each individual viewer.

Motion Graphics:

Motion graphics, or animated type/font, is used widely in animation, film, TV, video and websites, especially during the title sequences of films. Although this form of animation may seem rather unique and different from the others, it is created in a similar way to vector animation, using software such as Adobe Flash and After Effects.
Adobe After Effects
Cinema 4D

Flip Book:

Flip book animation is similar to traditional animation in the sense that it makes use of a series of sequential drawings on paper, drawn in a way that allows the viewer to flip the sheets back and forth, seeing the illusion of movement as the pages are hidden and revealed. Each page is a frame of animation, the more pages per movement, the higher the frame rate.


For this form of animation, a series of images are drawn on a drum that is then rotated, as it turns in a circular direction the viewer experiences the illusion of movement.
Animation Moodboard:
Animation Moodboard.jpg


Bloop Animation. (2017). The 5 Types of Animation – A Beginner’s Guide. [online] Available at: https://www.bloopanimation.com/types-of-animation/[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Abstract animation. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_animation[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Animation techniques. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Animation_techniques[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Cel. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cel[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Celluloid. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celluloid[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Traditional animation. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_animation[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Virtual cinematography. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_cinematography[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
Filmeducation.org. (2017). Film Education | Events | Primary animation | Animation techniques. [online] Available at: http://www.filmeducation.org/resources/primary/teaching_with_film/primary_animation/animation_techniques/[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
Studies, (2008). Animation Techniques. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/longroadmedia/animation-techniques-presentation[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].
Webneel.com. (2017). 20 Different Types of Animation Techniques and Styles. [online] Available at: http://webneel.com/different-types-of-animation-styles[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Hope Research

-Meaning of Hope:
Hope revolves around the concept and state of mind referred to optimism or being optimistic. Both hope and optimism are related to how a person perceives and expects outcomes to unfold, usually expecting a positive outcome. Also tied in with hope is forgiveness and positivity, as well as a host of positive emotions. Opposing Hope are several emotions and states of being, such as hopelessness, fear and despair. All of these states of mind and emotions are heavily influenced by past experiences, chemicals in the brain, health, colour, perception, language, culture and various social factors. A major factor in hope, optimism and despair would be environmental, with family and social environments becoming a prevalent cause of despair and depression, especially among youths and teens.
Hope and optimism are integrally tied in together, with optimism being the precursor. Those who are not optimistic, whether it be by choice or various factors beyond their control, usually do not experience or empathise with hope or those experiencing hope. However, one does not need to be optimistic to experience hope, as even pessimists can experience it, however rarely. Although optimism does lead towards a more frequently hopeful nature, hope usually has more solidity than that of general optimism. Adding to that would be the pairing of motivation and self-discipline, which are important to the continued drive one needs to accomplish their goals. It can be argued whether or not motivation and self-discipline are equally important, on one hand motivation acts as a sort of inspirational boost that usually requires some external influence to trigger, self-discipline, however, is usually internal and relies upon the willpower and determination of the individual, arguably a better long-term strategy and path.
-Hope and Colour:
Colours regarding Hope:
Aqua and Olive Green: healing, protection and peace
Light Blue: health and tranquillity
White: goodness, purity and safety
Light Yellow: intellect, freshness and joy
Dark Blue: knowledge and power
Colours regarding Despair:
Dark Red: rage, malice and wrath
Dark Green: ambition, greed and jealousy
Yellow Green: sickness, cowardice, discord and jealousy
Black: death and evil
Dark Purple: gloom, sadness and frustration
Dark Orange: deceit and distrust
-Hope in Storytelling:
Hope is an integral part of storytelling, something which helps to drive the main character/s forward. The events that happen to that character usually shape them and their personality, the way they perceive the world and their hope. Many times in storytelling, the main character will have their hope or faith tested, whether it be in a concept or cause, and their reactions are what build them as a believable and relatable being. In such cases, various other characters usually have a role to play when it comes to the influence these events have on the character, with some preaching discouragement, while others may attempt to lift up the character. The struggle of mindset, perception and vulnerability is something that helps make characters more real, grounding them in reality and making them more relatable. The weaknesses, failings and struggles of the character allow us to empathise with them, an important part of creating a believable story. On many occasions, the viewers witness the growth of the character, seeing the highs and lows of their struggle and their more human aspects, something people don’t usually openly display. This look into the characters inner workings and perception of the world around them, relating to emotions such as hope and despair, helps create a tangible emotional connection between a fictional character and the audience, whom feel as though they are connected on an individual level.
The completion of tasks, especially ones previously viewed as impossible, helps build upon the feeling of hope and reigniting it if it was lost. When it comes to despair, one may perceive the world in a pessimistic or negative way, whether by choice or circumstance. If the character is able to conquer these states of despair and hopelessness, usually spurred on by a catalyst such as an event or person, they usually do so by completing a goal or task that they previously viewed as impossible. This creates a state where the character’s mindset changes, their perceptions of the world and their abilities evolve, and they become happier, optimistic and more content with their lives and situations.
Without hope in stories, the characters would fall into despair and never leave, however the contrast between hope and despair is integral to creating a believable journey and cast. To fully appreciate the strength of the character and their ability to maintain hope, you must also be aware of the odds stacked against them, their moments of despair, and the environments and situations they are thrust into.
Overall, the combination of catalysts, willpower and completion of goals leads to and contributes to the mental health of an individual, causing their mindset to shift into a more positive and optimistic viewpoint as their perceptions of the world and their abilities change.
-Hope in art, design, literature and/or film etc.:
When it comes to the use of hope in literature and entertainment, Star Wars is a shining example. Not only did they communicate a sense of hope successfully through the story, but they did so as well through colour, design and composition, making use of visuals to enhance key story points and further the narrative. The combination of visual and story-based elements is essential for communicating the direction of a film and the themes within. Added in with those factors would be the use of music, which in Star Wars is used effectively to display the emotions and moods within the various scenes.
An essential point in the first movie is when Luke is in a moment of quite contemplation, the twin suns of Tatooine in the distance before him. The emotional orchestral track, combined with the sombre, new dawn visuals, inspires a rising sense of hope. The viewer gets the sense that the character, Luke, is realising that there is more out that, that he can achieve something great. This builds on that sense of hope, the trust in something non-tangible. The trust that there is a possibility, no matter how slim or allusive, that you are able to achieve your goals and progress in life. People’s hopes are essentially goals, usually non-tangible and seemingly distant. Even though that may be the case, the hopes of Luke and his friends are fulfilled by the end, while the nefarious goals of their enemies are thwarted by the action of others placing their faith into the Force, something intangible, like that of hope.
Throughout the movies, this theme of hope is tested again and again, with setbacks being overcome through the use of willpower and the help of friends and mentors. The themes of mentor ship, friendship and selflessness are intrinsically woven in with that of hope. This is clearly displayed through the actions of Luke, as well as that of his companions. The hopes of these characters do change throughout the course of the movies, with Luke aiming to become a better man than his father, to restore peace and vanquish the Empire. Even though he does lapse into periods of darkness and rage, he is pulled out through realisations and the help of others. Instead of executing his father and leaving him to die, he helps him remove his helmet as he believes there is hope yet for him, he may be able to atone for what he has done. That moment is one of forgiveness and connection, a moment of bonding and understanding.
The message shown throughout is that of hope, faith and belief. One should trust that there is goodness in the world, and that there is hope for even those who have fallen into periods of darkness and despair. All you need to do is pull yourself out, through the use of willpower and the support of others.
-Hope in Body and Shape Language:
When it comes to emotions, shapes serve as a powerful tool of communication. The orientation of the shape, the shape itself, as well as the relative size and proportions, combines with the context that it resides in to display an emotion, or emotions, that the viewer may connect with. When it comes to shapes, there is a spectrum of emotional readability and understanding. The clarity of the communication may range from abstract to complex, from a simple circle to a complex arrangement of angular shadow shapes that build up a villainous character’s face. To organise the types of shapes used, one may arrange them into three categories; Geometric, Organic and Abstract. When organising these shapes, one must be aware of the negative space being used and created, as this can form a multitude of shapes that could compliment, harmonise or contrast with the positive.
Geometric shapes are the more conventional, such as circles, squares, diamonds and triangles. These shapes, being so commonly used, recognisable and easily made into patterns, communicate structure and organisation, as well as order through their usually symmetrical nature. However, when their orientation is off-balance and are influenced contextually by other shapes, they may display fearful and submissive characteristics and emotions. One such example may be this; an off-balance triangle, made of a de-saturated blue, points to the right at an acute angle, while a large square, comprised of bright, saturated red, tips towards it, off-balance by an, even more, acute angle. The smaller triangle slopes away from the larger shape, appearing as though it is cringing and retracting from the presence of the square.This situation would communicate instability and danger, the triangle appearing fearful before the much larger shape, threatening to topple.
Organic shapes stray away from the structure and order of the Geometric, moving more towards uneven edges and curves. Organic shapes are usually found in nature, non-conforming and free-flowing. The easy-going nature and soft edge quality usually conveys comfort and tranquillity. Depending on the arrangement of the curves in the edges, they shapes could display energetic qualities, the example of a roller coaster may be used to illustrate this; there are both areas of slow, calm climbs that are offset by sudden drops, something that is both visually and physically tangible when it comes to the actual roller coaster, however, this needs to be communicated through visuals alone using shape language.
Abstract shapes are more of a combination of geometric and organic shapes, creating something unique and stylised. Usually, abstract shapes are used as icons and symbols, with typography being an excellent example of abstract shapes being used for communication.
The quality of shapes, their colour, and their orientation, influences the way we perceive them. A sharp, red and angular triangle will communicate more aggression than a soft edged, light blue circle. The reason we perceive shapes in this way connects back to evolution and threat processing. Threat detection, and the processing behind it, is deeply ingrained in all of us and is constructed in a way that it requires minimal stimulation to trigger a response. Sharp, angular and aggressive shapes hint at predators and danger, triggering a fight or flight response. On the other hand, soft, curved and rounded shapes and features communicate affection and bonding, this is believed to come from the shape of a baby’s face and their rounded features.
Angles are incredibly important when it comes to shape language and design, and can influence the visual response that the shapes illicit from the viewer. Shapes with sharp declines communicate negative emotions, while upwardly curved edges would garner a more positive reaction.
Colour and shape go hand-in-hand, allowing designers to communicate emotion and information effectively, tapping into the human perception of the world. To communicate hope, one should recruit the help of both shape and colour in order to effectively display the intended emotion. The combination of rounded shapes, such as the circle, with peaceful and hopeful colours such as white and light blue, communicates hopeful characteristics. This is especially prevalent when put into context, with proportions and scale applied to it within that context. A white circle, with a hint of light blue or aqua, rising above a field of dark triangles will simultaneously display hope, danger and tension, especially if the background verges on a desaturated red, or perhaps a sickly yellow-green. An important part of this composition, and what it communicates, would be the proportional scale between the dangerous and hopeful elements, the visual weight of each influencing the predominant emotion. Even if the triangles are smaller than the circle, the amount and density of them may garner them more visual weight. Achieving the desired emotional response in an image requires a fine balance of that weight, something that is influenced by size, colour, shape and arrangement, as well as various other factors.
When it comes to animation, shapes are used extensively in order to communicate the desired meaning effectively and efficiently. Character designs are heavily influenced by shape language, design and psychology. The use of geometric and organic shapes not only makes animating easier, but also helps to easily display the personality of a character. A friendly character may be comprised of a series of repeating circles and organic shapes, while a villain may be built up of triangles, sharp and angular, housed within an overall triangular envelope. These designs are further enhanced by colour, helping to solidify the emotional response that the shapes communicate.
When it comes to body language, the expression of hope can be tied to that of confidence and the transition from reclusive body language to that state. Confidence, when communicated through body language, usually manifests itself as a combination of gestures and movements. Several ways in which confidence and likeability is shown, is through smiling, a good balance of eye contact, calm movements, stillness, arms gently held in front or behind you, standing tall and straight and having your head held high. To communicate hope, a person may be in a shy, fearful position, that then transitions into one of hope. To show this, the person may look up from a hunched position, gazing upwards with open eyes. They may begin to stand, straightening their backs and assuming a confident, strong stance. The action of gazing upwards, combined with the overall postural transition, helps to communicate a sense of hope and path to success.
The use of clothing adds the perception of hope, as well as the lack thereof. Characters in movies and animation usually have clothing that reflects their personality and position in the overall story, as well as their own. In Star Wars, clothing is used to visually represent the position of the characters in the story, as well as their personalities. Luke, especially in A New Hope, are white. This ties in perfectly with the themes of hope that run throughout the franchise, with the title of the movie clearly stating the inclusion of hope as an important theme. With white being a colour that is usually perceived as representing goodness, purity and safety, it can clearly communicate hope more so than most other colours, as the characteristics of this colour are closely linked to that of hope itself. To contrast this, Darth Vader is clad in all black, with hints of red from his control panel and lightsaber communicating anger, violence and chaos. This combination of colours pushes forth the narrative of death, chaos and evil that this character represents. A middle ground between these two polar opposites would be Han Solos attire, with the combination of both black and white being prevalent in his design. This combination of black and white is directly influenced by his attitude, personality and his motives throughout the movies, tying in with his fluctuating allegiance and compassion. The Jedi, who throughout the films are known to favour nature and the humanity of people, are usually seen wearing monk-like robes that feature warm, earthy tones.
Visual References and Representations of Hope and Despair:

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